Union label dating

Meanwhile, in 1973 the IPPAU merged with the IS&EU, creating the International Printing and Graphic Communications Union (IPGCU). The Graphic Communications International Union and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters officially joined forces on January 1, 2005 after the GCIU membership ratified the merger by a clear majority in late 2004.

[6.5] Ten years later the IPGCU merged with the GAIU to form the Graphic Communications International Union (GCIU) [7] , and in 1987 the ITU, suffering from declining membership in the face of dramatic technological changes, joined forces with the Communication Workers of America (C. As of 2007 more than 60,000 GCIU members in the United States are part of the Graphic Communications Conference (GCC).

However, of these the ITU remained the strongest and most stable printing union in the United States until the mid 1900's.

[4] , [5] The Amalgamated Lithographers of America (ALA), representing the lithographic industry, was founded in 1915.

Printers have been know to use a bug to designate union labor as early as October 15, 1891, when it appeared at the head of the editorial column of the Compositors (ITU) Typographical Journal.

The first known use of a bug in commercially-produced documents was by the IPPAU in May 1893 [11] .

By the 1890's the production improvements included linotype machines, electric drives, and automatic paper feeders.

The impact of union membership on document production varies depending on geographical region, type of document, printing client, and date.

As with most industrial unions, membership is highest in regions where laborers are most concentrated.

Also, some parts of the country (Northeast, Midwest) have a history and culture that is supportive of trade union activities.

Estimates of the portion of the lithographic workforce represented by the ALA in 1958 is illustrative of the major regions of representation [9] : Union representation in the printing workforce, as most industries, has generally declined in the last half of the 20th century.

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